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Praxis

Praxis

Friday, 18 June 2021 11:23

Mom, I miss you

In the very center of Belgrade, Serbia, hidden behind the platforms of the Bus and Railway Station, invisible for the inhabitants of the city, during 2016 and 2017, a parallel city of refugees and migrants grew. All those who were, for various reasons, outside the reception and asylum centers, lived for months in abandoned barracks during the coldest winter in many years, when the temperature dropped below -20. From there, they started their journey to try to cross the border irregularly and reach Western Europe, where they were most often beaten, robbed and returned ill after unsuccessful attempts.

With the expansion of a grandiose infrastructure project, all the squats were demolished to give way to construction sites, the foundations of modern skyscrapers on the river bank and the future new landmark of Belgrade. From the settlement where 2,000 people lived at one time, among them a few hundred unaccompanied and separated children, only the ruins remained after the excavator. Most people were then relocated to reception centers, where they had incomparably better conditions. However, most grieved for the demolished barracks, a place that grew in some bizarre direction, with its streets, cricket fields, hairdressers, volunteers, its celebrations with traditional dances. Those of us who worked in that place every day knew the other side of it, much darker, all its risks, concerning health, safety and other issues, which were a consequence of what some of them perceived as the ultimate freedom. Clashes, various types of violence, robberies and frauds, fear and anxiety lurked beneath the layer of cheerful greetings and jokes. Life in such a place, between tons of garbage, had only one purpose - to be close to the station and immediately respond to the call of smugglers, to continue the journey as soon as possible.

A year later, incomparably fewer refugees and migrants were outdoors, out of the system. At the site of the barracks, construction machinery largely performed work on the construction of high towers. However, at that place, during outreach work, we found a group of minors from Afghanistan, unaccompanied boys. They slept in large pipes waiting to be set up on the construction site. Nylon was pulled over the opening of the pipe, to protect them from the wind and rain.

We have been creating a relationship of trust with them for a long time, making them aware of the risks of their decision to be there. The reasons were the same ones we had been listening to for years. By going to the Asylum Center, which is a 6-hour drive from Belgrade, they lose the opportunity to be ready to move as soon as the smugglers call them. By not answering the call, they lose money or a place in the next group.

Praxis' team for the protection of refugees and migrants repeatedly referred minors to Field Social Workers, as well as to other organizations that provided specific assistance. We took them to the doctors for medical care whenever necessary, but also to workshops organized by other organizations in the nearby safe space where they carried out their activities. The boys told us how they had crossed the borders in all ways, crossing rivers, smuggling on trucks, staying under trains or freezing for days wandering in the woods. All the failures, beatings by the border police, push backs to countries from which they would try to cross again irregularly, looting in the parks of the cities they passed through, encounters with wild animals in the "jungle", all this left marks that they tried to cover up, having only one goal, to move forward.

While visiting a space where several organizations worked with this group of children, one of them, a fourteen-year-old, quietly wrote something on a sticker that he carelessly pasted on a nearby wall when he left. Out of curiosity, we later invited a cultural mediator to translate the inscription for us. It said in Persian, "Mom, I miss you, I dream of you every night”.

Praxis' team worked with this group of children on a daily basis, and they eventually agreed to enter the social protectioin system, after which they were placed in a nearby Asylum Center. Although they were no longer exposed to the risks of staying outside, they did not stay in the Asylum Center for long. The boys called us after a few months from Western Europe.

Today, along the river, Belgrade Waterfront dominates the skyline. At the place where the bicycle path now passes, only a couple of years ago, some children stood in torn shoes, wet and frozen, towards their dreams. In one of those skyscrapers a pipe was built in, which was home to a group of boys from Kabul during the winter of 2018.

Friday, 18 June 2021 00:00

Mom, I miss you

In the very center of Belgrade, Serbia, hidden behind the platforms of the Bus and Railway Station, invisible for the inhabitants of the city, during 2016 and 2017, a parallel city of refugees and migrants grew. All those who were, for various reasons, outside the reception and asylum centers, lived for months in abandoned barracks during the coldest winter in many years, when the temperature dropped below -20. From there, they started their journey to try to cross the border irregularly and reach Western Europe, where they were most often beaten, robbed and returned ill after unsuccessful attempts.

With the expansion of a grandiose infrastructure project, all the squats were demolished to give way to construction sites, the foundations of modern skyscrapers on the river bank and the future new landmark of Belgrade. From the settlement where 2,000 people lived at one time, among them a few hundred unaccompanied and separated children, only the ruins remained after the excavator. Most people were then relocated to reception centers, where they had incomparably better conditions. However, most grieved for the demolished barracks, a place that grew in some bizarre direction, with its streets, cricket fields, hairdressers, volunteers, its celebrations with traditional dances. Those of us who worked in that place every day knew the other side of it, much darker, all its risks, concerning health, safety and other issues, which were a consequence of what some of them perceived as the ultimate freedom. Clashes, various types of violence, robberies and frauds, fear and anxiety lurked beneath the layer of cheerful greetings and jokes. Life in such a place, between tons of garbage, had only one purpose - to be close to the station and immediately respond to the call of smugglers, to continue the journey as soon as possible.

A year later, incomparably fewer refugees and migrants were outdoors, out of the system. At the site of the barracks, construction machinery largely performed work on the construction of high towers. However, at that place, during outreach work, we found a group of minors from Afghanistan, unaccompanied boys. They slept in large pipes waiting to be set up on the construction site. Nylon was pulled over the opening of the pipe, to protect them from the wind and rain.

We have been creating a relationship of trust with them for a long time, making them aware of the risks of their decision to be there. The reasons were the same ones we had been listening to for years. By going to the Asylum Center, which is a 6-hour drive from Belgrade, they lose the opportunity to be ready to move as soon as the smugglers call them. By not answering the call, they lose money or a place in the next group.

Praxis' team for the protection of refugees and migrants repeatedly referred minors to Field Social Workers, as well as to other organizations that provided specific assistance. We took them to the doctors for medical care whenever necessary, but also to workshops organized by other organizations in the nearby safe space where they carried out their activities. The boys told us how they had crossed the borders in all ways, crossing rivers, smuggling on trucks, staying under trains or freezing for days wandering in the woods. All the failures, beatings by the border police, push backs to countries from which they would try to cross again irregularly, looting in the parks of the cities they passed through, encounters with wild animals in the "jungle", all this left marks that they tried to cover up, having only one goal, to move forward.

While visiting a space where several organizations worked with this group of children, one of them, a fourteen-year-old, quietly wrote something on a sticker that he carelessly pasted on a nearby wall when he left. Out of curiosity, we later invited a cultural mediator to translate the inscription for us. It said in Persian, "Mom, I miss you, I dream of you every night”.

Praxis' team worked with this group of children on a daily basis, and they eventually agreed to enter the social protectioin system, after which they were placed in a nearby Asylum Center. Although they were no longer exposed to the risks of staying outside, they did not stay in the Asylum Center for long. The boys called us after a few months from Western Europe.

Today, along the river, Belgrade Waterfront dominates the skyline. At the place where the bicycle path now passes, only a couple of years ago, some children stood in torn shoes, wet and frozen, towards their dreams. In one of those skyscrapers a pipe was built in, which was home to a group of boys from Kabul during the winter of 2018.

Kako propusti u radu institucija mogu da utiču na život građana i građanki i njihov pristup osnovnim pravima, svedoči slučaj dečaka koji je Praxis evidentirao prilikom posete Doljevcu 2020. godine. Učeniku VI razreda osnovne škole trinaest godina nije bilo određeno lično ime. Roditelji su propustili da mu u zakonskom roku odrede ime, a ni otac nije priznao očinstvo.

Nakon što su roditelji otišli u inostranstvo, brigu o dečaku i njegovoj braći i sestri preuzeli su baba i deda, a po njihovoj smrti, deca su više meseci u Doljevcu živela sama, dok se iz inostranstva nije vratio njihov otac. Dečakova majka je pre više godina napustila porodicu. Dečak sada živi sa braćom, od kojih su dvojica punoletni.

U ovakvim situacijama, centar za socijalni rad je dužan da preduzme mere i aktivnosti kako bi se regulisao lični status deteta i omogućio pristup osnovnim pravima, u detetovom najboljem interesu. Organ starateljstva je bio dužan da sprovede postupak i donese odluku o određivanju ličnog imena deteta kao i da potom, donese odluku kojom određuje staratelja kako bi se regulisao dečakov lični status, a posebno prijava na zdravstveno osiguranje.

S obzirom na to da je prilikom terenske posete evidentirano da dečak nema određeno lično ime, uz pomoć Praxisa je Centru za socijalni rad u Doljevcu podnet zahtev za određivanje ličnog imena.

Pošto nije dobijen odgovor po osnovu podnetog zahteva, Centru za socijalni rad u Doljevcu je upućen dopis kojim je zahtevana informacija o statusu predmeta. U telefonskim razgovorima, koji su potom usledili, pravniku, supervizoru i socijalnom radniku Centra je predočeno da Porodični zakon nalaže organu starateljstva da odredi lično ime deteta u ovakvim slučajevima, kao i da je u interesu deteta da formalno stekne pravni subjektivitet. Praxis je tada naročito napomeno da su dečaku, zbog neposedovanja dokumenata, uskraćena osnovna prava, a posebno pravo na zdravstvenu zaštitu i obrazovanje.

Predstavnici centra su bili pri stavu da nije moguće odrediti lično ime deteta bez učešća roditelja. S obzirom na to da organ starateljstva i dalje nije donosio odluku po podnetom zahtevu, upućena je urgencija, nakon čega je Centar dostavio obaveštenje da nije u mogućnosti da sprovede postupak određivanja ličnog imena deteta, jer se majka deteta ne nalazi na adresi na kojoj je mesno nadležan Centar za socijalni rad. Dečakova majka živi u Nemačkoj i ne poseduje važeću ličnu kartu.

Centar za socijalni rad je dužan da svakom detetu odredi ime, ukoliko ono nije određeno u zakonskom roku, bez obzira na bilo koje okolnosti, pa i na to da li majka može da učestvuje u postupku. Pravo na upis u matičnu knjigu rođenih i na lično ime svakom detetu garantuju i Ustav i Porodični zakon i Međunarodni pakt o građanskim i političkim pravima i Konvencija o pravima deteta.

U međuvremenu, dečakova starija braća su samostalno odlazila u Centar za socijalni rad u Doljevcu, kome su se obraćali radi regulisanja ličnog statusa maloletnog brata. Nakon što su više puta insistirali kod ovog organa starateljstva da preduzme mere kako bi se rešio dečakov status, kako su Praxisu preneli, iz Centra su im pretili da će izmestiti dečaka i smestiti ga u hraniteljsku porodicu, nakon čega su prestali da se obraćaju organu starateljstva.

Od dečakove braće Praxis je saznao da je dečaku prošle godine dijagnostifikovan dijabetes. Nakon višednevnog ispoljavanja različitih simptoma, pedijatar Doma zdravlja u Doljevcu pristao je da ga pregleda, iako dete nije imalo zdravstvenu knjižicu. Analizom krvi je tada bio utvrđen višestruko povišen nivo šećera, zbog čega je dečak hitno prevezen u Klinički centar Niš, gde su isprva odbili da ga prime zbog neposedovanja zdravstvene knjižice. Pošto se nalazio u teškom zdravstvenom stanju, dečak je ipak primljen na bolničko lečenje. Nakon otpusta iz Kliničkog centra Niš, pošto nije posedavo izvod iz matične knjige rođenih ni zdravstvenu knjižicu, dečak nije mogao da ode na pregled kod endokrinologa. Sva medicinska sredstva i potrošni materijal neophodan za kontrolu nivoa šećera u krvi, koje bi inače dobijao bez troškova da je zdravstveno osiguran, dečak je kupovao i to kada i ukoliko bi porodica za to imala novca.

Zbog ozbiljnosti situacije i dečakovog zdravstvenog stanja, a usled propusta u radu centra za socijalni rad, Praxis se obratio Zaštitniku građana kako bi preduzeo radnje iz svoje nadležnosti i sproveo kontrolu zakonitosti postupanja centra. UNHCR i Zaštitnik građana su, zajedno sa Ministarstvom za državnu upravu i lokalnu samoupravu Republike Srbije potpisnici Sporazuma o razumevanju, čiji je cilj rešavanje preostalih problema sa kojima se suočavaju osobe bez ličnih dokumenata, kao i članovi Operativne grupe formirane u okviru ovog sporazuma.

Uprkos ranijim naporima Praxisa koji su trajali duže od devet meseci i ukazivanja na potrebu reševanja dečakovog slučaja i na nezakonito postupanje Centra, tek nakon što je Zaštitnik građana sproveo kontrolu zakonitosti postupanja centra za socijalni rad, ovaj organ starateljstva je pokrenuo postupak za određivanje ličnog imena deteta. Rezultati su u potpunosti bili vidljivi dva meseca nakon uključivanja Zaštitnika građana u ovaj slučaj.

Centar za socijalni rad u Doljevcu je doneo rešenje kojim je dečaku određeno lično ime. Sproveden je upis ličnog imena, određivanje JMBG-a i upis činjenice državljanstva u matičnoj službi u Nišu. Dečak je tek tada, trinaest godina nakon rođenja dobio potrebna dokumenta, sa kojima je napokon mogao da ostvari pravo na zdravstveno osiguranje koje mu je bilo preko potrebno. Centar za socijalni rad u Doljevcu je pribavio izvod iz matične knjige rođenih i u saradnji sa ispostavom Republičkog fonda za zdravstveno osiguranje u Doljevcu izvršio prijavu dečaka na zdravstveno osiguranje.

Time je konačno dobijen epilog ovog slučaja, dečaka iz Doljevca koji trinaest godina nije imao pristup osnovnim pravima jer mu nije bilo određeno lično ime. Slučaj je rešen u roku od dva meseca nakon obraćanja Zaštitniku građana, zahvaljujući saradnji uspostvljenoj u okviru Operativne grupe, a na osnovu Sporazuma o razumevanju između UNHCR-a, Ministarstva za državnu upravu i lokalnu samoupravu i Zaštitnika građana Republike Srbije. Iako je ovaj slučaj konačno uspešno rešen, on pokazuje da je u praksi potrebno još dosta raditi na jačanju kapaciteta, kao i na senzitivisanju službenika o posebnom položaju i potrebama lica iz marginalizovanih grupa, kako bi svi građani pod jednakim uslovima bez diskriminacije mogli da pristupe osnovnim pravima. Primeri poput ovog o dečaku iz Doljevca pokazuju nam koliko je neophodna i važna pravna pomoć, ali i zagovaranje u ovim slučajevima. Uprkos uspesima koji su do sada postignuti na ovom polju, na terenu i u praksi se, nažalost, još uvek susrećemo sa ljudima koji i dalje nemaju lična dokumenta i, kao posledicu toga, nemaju mogućnost da ostvaruju osnovna prava.

The case of a boy, who was identified by Praxis staff during their visit to Doljevac in 2020, demonstrates how failures in the work of institutions can affect the lives of citizens and their access to basic rights. A sixth-grade primary school pupil did not have a determined personal name for thirteen years. His parents failed to determine his personal name within the legal deadline, and the father did not recognise paternity.

After the parents went abroad, the boy's grandparents took care of him and his siblings, and after their death, the children lived alone in Doljevac for several months, until their father returned from abroad. The boy's mother left the family many years ago. The boy now lives with his brothers, two of whom are adults.

In such situations, the social welfare centre is obliged to take measures and perform activities to regulate the child’s personal status and enable his or her access to basic rights, in the best interest of the child. The guardianship authority was obliged to conduct a procedure and adopt a decision on determining the child’s personal name, and then to adopt a decision appointing a guardian in order to regulate the boy's personal status, and particularly his registration to health insurance.

Considering that in one of the field visits Praxis staff established that the boy did not have a determined personal name, they helped with submitting a request for determining a personal name to the Social Welfare Centre in Doljevac.

As there was no response to the submitted request, Praxis sent a letter to the Social Welfare Centre in Doljevac requesting information on the status of the case. In the telephone conversations that followed, Praxis reminded the Centre’s lawyer, supervisor and social worker of the fact that the Law on Family required the guardianship authority to determine the child's personal name in such cases, and that it was in the child's interest to be formally recognised before the law. Praxis then stressed that the boy, due to the lack of documents, was deprived of basic rights, and in particular the right to health care and education.

The Centre’s representatives considered that it was not possible to determine the personal name of the child without the participation of his parents. Given that the guardianship authority still did not adopt a decision on the submitted request, Praxis sent an urgency letter, after which the Centre responded with a notification of the inability to conduct a procedure for determining the child's personal name, because the child's mother did not reside at the address covered by the Social Welfare Centre. The boy's mother lives in Germany and does not have a valid ID card.

The Social Welfare Centre is obliged to assign a name to every child, if it is not determined within the legal deadline, regardless of any circumstances, including whether the mother can participate in the procedure. The Constitution, the Law on Family, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child guarantee every child the right to be registered into birth registry books and to have a personal name.

In the meantime, the boy's older brothers went to the Social Welfare Centre in Doljevac on their own with the intention to regulate the personal status of their minor brother. After repeatedly insisting with this guardianship authority to take measures to solve the boy's status, as they told Praxis, the Centre threatened to relocate the boy and place him in a foster family, after which they stopped contacting the guardianship authority.

Praxis has learned from the boy's brothers that the boy was diagnosed with diabetes last year. The boy experienced various symptoms for several days, after which the paediatrician of the Health Centre in Doljevac agreed to examine him, despite the fact that the child did not have a health card. The blood test revealed a high sugar level, after which the boy was urgently transported to the Clinical Centre Niš, where they initially refused to admit him for not having a health card. Since his health condition was critical, the boy was finally hospitalised. After being discharged from the Clinical Centre Niš, the boy could not be examined by an endocrinologist because he did not have a birth certificate or a health card. The boy bought all the medical devices and supplies necessary for the control of blood sugar levels, which he would have obtained for free if he had been registered to health insurance. The boy bought the necessary supplies when and if the family had the money.

Due to the seriousness of the situation and the boy's health condition, and due to the omissions in the work of the Social Welfare Centre, Praxis addressed the Protector of Citizens to take action within its purview and to control the legality of the Centre's actions. The UNHCR, the Protector of Citizens and the Ministry of Public Administration and Local Self-Government of the Republic of Serbia signed the Agreement of Understanding, with the aim of resolving the outstanding problems faced by undocumented persons. Their representatives are also the members of the Task Force set up on the basis of this Agreement.

Although Praxis repeatedly, during more than nine months, pointed out to the need to resolve the boy's case and the Centre's unlawful actions, it was only after the Protector of Citizens controlled the legality of the Social Welfare Centre's actions that the guardianship authority initiated a procedure for determining the child's personal name. The results were fully visible two months after the involvement of the Protector of Citizens in this case.

The Social Welfare Centre in Doljevac adopted a decision determining the personal name for the boy. His personal name was registered, his Citizen Unique Personal Number (JMBG) was determined and the fact of his citizenship was registered in the registry office in Niš. It was only then, thirteen years after his birth, that the boy obtained the necessary documents, which finally enabled him to exercise the right to health insurance, which he desperately needed. The Social Welfare Centre in Doljevac obtained a birth certificate and, in cooperation with the branch office of the Republic Health Insurance Fund in Doljevac, registered the boy for health insurance.

This finally solved the case of the boy from Doljevac who had been deprived of access to basic rights for thirteen years because his personal name had not been determined. The case was solved within two months of addressing the Protector of Citizens, thanks to the cooperation established within the Task Force, based on the Agreement of Understanding between the UNHCR, the Ministry of Public Administration and Local Self-Government and the Protector of Citizens of the Republic of Serbia. Although this case has finally been successfully resolved, it shows that in practice a lot of work remains to be done to strengthen capacity, as well as to sensitise officials about the special position and needs of persons from the marginalised groups, so that all citizens can access their basic rights. The examples like this (the boy from Doljevac) show us the extent to which legal aid and also advocacy are necessary and important in such cases. Despite the successes that have been achieved so far in this area, unfortunately, in the field and in practice in general we continue to meet people who still do not have personal documents and, as a consequence, lack the opportunity to exercise basic rights.

Naš pravni koordinator Milan Radojev govorio je za NOVA S o problemu upisa u matične knjige odmah po rođenju.

 

Prilog možete pogledati OVDE

Nevladine organizacije Tim 42 i Praxis, podnele su inicijativu za izmene pojedinih odredaba Zakona o socijalnoj zaštiti Ministarstvu za rad, zapošljavanje, boračka i socijalna pitanja i Ministarstvu za ljudska i manjinska prava i društveni dijalog, koju su podržale 34 organizacije civilnog društva u Srbiji.

Zakon o socijalnoj zaštiti, koji je na snazi već deset godina, trebalo je da posluži kao osnova za stvaranje sistema koji će pružati pomoć i osnaživati pojedince i porodice za samostalan i produktivan život u društvu, sprečiti nastajanje i otkloniti posledice socijalne isključenosti. Zakon o socijalnoj zaštiti je krovni zakon koji uređuje oblast socijalne zaštite i predstavlja sistemski propis koji se odnosi na veliki broj građana i građanki, naročito značajan za pripadnike različitih osetljivih društvenih grupa. Zbog toga je posebno važno da rešenja predviđena zakonom sistem socijalne zaštite urede na celovit način i u skladu sa ciljevima socijalne zaštite, kao i da uspostave procedure koje su prilagođene korisnicima i njihovim potrebama. Ustav Republike Srbije garantuje građanima i porodicama, kojima je neophodna društvena pomoć radi savladavanja socijalnih i životnih teškoća i stvaranja uslova za zadovoljavanje osnovnih životnih potreba, pravo na socijalnu zaštitu čije se pružanje zasniva na načelima socijalne pravde, humanizma i poštovanja ljudskog dostojanstva.

Svaki pojedinac treba da bude zaštićen od oskudice i da uživa minimum prava neophodnih za opstanak. Sistem socijalne zaštite neodvojiv je od fenomena siromaštva i od prevencije posledica koje oskudica za sobom povlači. Iako socijalnom zaštitom nije moguće iskoreniti uzroke i sam fenomen siromaštva, njom je moguće ublažiti njegove posledice i dalje ponavljanje i širenje, pa države imaju obavezu da mehanizmima socijalne zaštite pomognu licima kojima je socijalna pomoć neophodna.

Tokom višegodišnjeg rada sa ranjivim kategorijama društva i korisnicima usluga socijalne zaštite kroz pružanje pravne pomoći i/ili informisanje i savetovanje, nevladine organizacije Tim 42 i Praxis uočile su brojne manjkavosti, kako kada je reč o pojedinim zakonskim rešenjima, tako i kada je reč implementaciji. Pojedine odredbe Zakona su necelishodne, nesvrsishodne, kose se sa načelima socijalne zaštite, ali i sprečavaju i ograničavaju potencijalne korisnike da zadovolje svoje potrebe za dodatnom podrškom.

Imajući u vidu proklamovane ciljeve socijalne zaštite i analizu efekata koje pojedina rešenja aktuelnog Zakona o socijalnoj zaštiti proizvode u praksi, nevladine organizacije Tim 42 i Praxis izradile su predlog za izmene pojedinih članova Zakona o socijalnoj zaštiti koji možete pogledati OVDE.

Organizacije koje su podržale inicijativu su:

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  • UG NEXUS - Vranje
  • Fondacija Centar za demokratiju
  • Zrenjaninski centar za jednaka prava
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  • Društvo ROM iz Velikog Gradišta
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  • A11 - Inicijativa za ekonomska i socijalna prava
  • Adventistički razvojni i humanitarni rad - ADRA
  • Odbor za ljudska prava Leskovac
  • Nepušački Edukativni Centar - RP
  • Udruženje građana Eduaktivni centar Roma
  • Romski centar za žene i decu "Daje"
  • Građanske inicijative
  • Partneri za demokratske promene Srbija
  • Multietnički centar za razvoj regije Dunav 21
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  • Udruženje tumača za lica oštećenog sluha Srbije
  • Sandžački odbor za zaštitu ljudskih prava i sloboda
  • “EU zona “
  • Društvo Roma Bogatić
  • Društvo "Bakija Bakić"
  • UGR produkcija Roma World
  • Multikultura
  • Autonomni ženski centar
  • OFER - Omladinski forum za edukaciju Roma
  • Centar za unapređivanje pravnih studija

Nakon Apela nadležnim ministarstvima za izmenu akata koji sprečavaju upis u matične knjige odmah nakon rođenja, pravni koordinator Milan Radojev govorio je o ovom problemu, koji teško pogađa neke od najsiromašnijih i najobespravljenijih građana Srbije, za Politiku i Portal 24sedam.

Uputili smo još jedan poziv Ministarstvu državne uprave i lokalne samouprave i Ministarstvu zdravlja da izmene sporne odredbe i time otklone prepreke koje onemogućavaju upis u matičnu knjigu rođenih odmah po rođenju. Ovaj problem, koji teško pogađa neke od najsiromašnijih i najobespravljenijih građana Srbije, moguće je sasvim lako i brzo rešiti uz malo dobre volje nadležnih organa.

Svako dete mora biti upisano u matičnu knjigu rođenih odmah nakon rođenja. To je pravo koje deci garantuju Ustav, zakon i ratifikovane međunarodne konvencije.

Međutim, u Srbiji se i dalje rađaju deca koja ne mogu da budu upisana u matične knjige odmah po rođenju. To se dešava u situacijama kada njihove majke ne poseduju lične karte. U tim slučajevima, umesto da se deca odmah nakon rođenja upišu u matičnu knjigu rođenih, neophodno je da se radi upisa vode posebni postupci pred centrima za socijalni rad, opštinskim organima uprave ili sudovima. Ti postupci često mogu biti dugotrajni i komplikovani i u najboljem slučaju traju nekoliko meseci, dok često mogu trajati i više od godinu dana, a ponekad i više godina. Na ovaj način grubo se krši pravo deteta na blagovremeni upis u matičnu knjigu rođenih. UNICEF je zauzeo stav da upis odmah po rođenju podrazumeva rok od nekoliko dana, a ne meseci.

Sve dok se ti postupci uspešno ne okončaju, dete neće moći da dobije izvod iz matične knjige rođenih, zbog čega će mu mnoga prava ostati uskraćena ili teško dostupna. Tako, na primer, dete neće moći da dobije zdravstvenu knjižicu, pa će lekarske preglede i lekove roditelji morati sami da plaćaju, a roditeljski ili dečiji dodatak i druga prava iz socijalnog osiguranja neće moći da dobiju.

Ovaj problem u Srbiji gotovo isključivo pogađa pripadnike romske nacionalne manjine, koji se i inače mogu svrstati među najugroženije, najdiskriminisanije i najmarginalizovanije građane. Tako se njihov ionako težak položaj samo dodatno pogoršava.

Uzrok problema, odnosno razlog zbog koga deca čije majke ne poseduju lične dokumente ne mogu da se upišu odmah nakon rođenja, nalazi se u dva podzakonska akta koji regulišu postupak prijave rođenja i upisa u matičnu knjigu rođenih. Tim aktima propisano je da se podaci o roditeljima u matične knjige upisuju na osnovu njihovih ličnih karata i izvoda iz matične knjige rođenih.

Uprkos tome što propisi koji imaju veću pravnu snagu (Ustav, Porodični zakon, ratifikovane međunarodne konvencije) propisuju da svako dete, bez izuzetka i bez obzira na bilo koje okolnosti - pa i na to da li njegovi roditelji poseduju lične dokumente ili ih ne poseduju – mora biti upisano u matičnu knjigu rođenih odmah nakon rođenja, matičari u praksi primenjuju podzakonske akte, a decu čije majke ne poseduju dokumente ne upisuju u matičnu knjigu rođenih odmah po rođenju. Stoga je neophodno da se sporni podzakonski akti izmene tako da se omogući upis u MKR svakog deteta odmah nakon rođenja.

Da je ovakva situacija neodrživa i da predstavlja kršenje osnovnih prava deteta ukazale su i brojne međunarodne organizacije i ugovorna tela. Tako su, između ostalih, Evropska komisija, Savet za ljudska prava Ujedinjenih nacija, Komitet UN za prava deteta, Komitet UN za ekonomska, socijalna i kulturna prava, Komitet UN za ljudska prava i Komitet UN za eliminisanje diskriminacije u svojim preporukama Srbiji ukazali da se svakom detetu mora omogućiti upis u matičnu knjigu rođenih odmah po rođenju i da je potrebno izmeniti propise koji to onemogućavaju.

 

Ova aktivnost sprovedena je u okviru projekta “Suzbijanje apatridije među Romima na Zapadnom Balkanu” koji finansira Fondacija za otvoreno društvo kroz Evropsku mrežu za pitanja apatridije. Stavovi izrečeni u ovom dokumentu pripadaju isključivo autoru i ne predstavljaju nužno zvaničan stav donatora.

 

Preuzmite dokument OVDE

Praxis je održao predavanje studentima IV godine Pravnog fakulteta Univerziteta Union na temu „Dečji, rani i prinudni brakovi u Srbiji“ u sklopu predmeta Antidiskriminaciono pravo. O propisima, reakciji i prevenciji dečjih, ranih i prinudnih brakova govorila je Nevena Marković, koordinatorka za prava deteta.

Tokom predavanja o dečjim, ranim i prinudnim brakovima u Srbiji, naglašeni su njihovi uzroci i posedice, ali i različiti uglovi sagledavanja problema, odnosno kako tema dečjih brakova izgleda iz ugla dece, a kako iz ugla službenika centara za socijalni rad. Preneli smo studentima iskustva na ovu temu kroz primere iz prakse, ali i govorili o zabrinjavajućim statističkim podacima dobijenim od centara za socijalni rad na osnovu zahteva za pristup informacijama od javnog značaja. Iako međunarodni i nacionalni propisi pružaju zadovoljavajući pravni okvir za prevenciju i reakciju na dečje, rane i prinudne brakove, činjenica da se čak trećina romskih devojčica trenutno nalazi u dečjem braku predstavlja očigledno neprimenjivanje obaveza koje proističu iz brojnih međunarodnih konvencija koje je Srbija ratifikovala, kao i iz domaćeg zakonodavstva.

Ukazali smo na važnost kontinuiranog obučavanja i informisanja svih aktera i nadležnih institucija kao i neophodnost da se aktivnosti na prevenciji dečjih, ranih i prinudnih brakova sprovode umreženo i kroz multidisciplinaran pristup.

Zahvaljujemo se Pravnom fakultetu Univerziteta Union na saradnji i još jednoj prilici da budućim pravnicima približimo temu dečjih, ranih i prinudnih brakova kroz predavanje, kao i putem promotivnog materijala na ovu temu.

Civil society organizations demand from the competent authorities to remove the shortcomings contained in the draft Law on Amendments to the Law on Prohibition of Discrimination and the draft Law on Same-Sex Unions, in accordance with the recommendations of civil society and the issued opinion of the Protector of Citizens.

During and after the public debate on the amendments to the Law on Prohibition of Discrimination, the Ministry of Human and Minority Rights and Social Dialogue has, without providing any justification and contrary to the recommendations of civil society organizations, formulated provisions that deviate from the legal standards of the Council of Europe, and in particular the European Court of Human Rights and the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance. It has also deviated from European Union standards regarding the prohibition of discrimination in the field of labour and employment. Shortcomings have also been identified in the other provisions of the draft law, including those that are not in line with other systemic laws, such as the Law on General Administrative Procedure and the Law on Personal Data Protection.

The Government of the Republic of Serbia adopted the draft Law on Amendments to the Law on Prohibition of Discrimination on April 22, 2021. This text is burdened with the same shortcomings as the draft Law. 

In the draft Law on Same-Sex Unions the Ministry included provisions that are not based on the recommendations of LGBT organizations regarding obstacles to the registration of same-sex unions, the relationship between a partner and a child of another partner and their mutual subsistence, as well as conditions for the recognition of an unregistered union. In addition, the draft law is burdened with numerous other flaws.

As the body responsible for the protection of human rights on the basis of the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia, the Protector of Citizens also informed the Ministry of Human and Minority Rights and Social Dialogue about the above-mentioned shortcomings in the opinion he issued.

Human rights organizations demand that the Ministry take into account the recommendations of the Protector of Citizens and civil society and remove the shortcomings of the draft Law on Same-Sex Unions. We expect the Government of Serbia to ensure that the above-mentioned shortcomings are removed before making any final decision on the text of the draft law. We appeal to the members of the National Assembly (MPs) to remove the identified shortcomings of the draft Law on Amendments to the Law on Prohibition of Discrimination through the submission of amendments. 

This request has been supported by: Center for Advanced Legal Studies (CUPS), Civil Rights Defenders, Praxis, Independent Journalists’ Association of Serbia (IJAS), Independent Journalists’ Association of Vojvodina (IJAV), Heartefuct fund, Pride Society, Association of Students with Handicap, Geten, Youth Initiative for Human Rights (YIHR), Humanitarian Law Center, Sandzak Committee for Protection of Human Rights, CHRIS Network of Human Rights Committees in Serbia, Labris, Child Rights Centre, Standing Conference of the Roma Associations of the Citizens (60 orgnisations), The Network of Organisations for Children of Serbia (103 organisations).

Praxis means action
Praxis means action
Praxis means action
Praxis means action